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La spécialité de Conservation est concentrée sur la formation théorique et pratique en identification, classement, restauration et préservation du patrimoine cinématographique et audiovisuel

Le cours confronte les élèves aux dilemnes (théoriques, techniques, éthiques) que provoque le cinéma en tant que patrimoine matériel et immatériel. Il aborde tous les aspects en rapport avec l'identification des images et sons sur des supports photochimiques, magnétiques et numériques, mais la spécialité procure par ailleurs les outils pour la gestion des fonds existants et la création de nouvelles collections. Le cours fournit par ailleurs l'accès aux protocoles et procédures de révision et de restauration des matériaux, par les outils mécaniques et numériques, ce qui permet la pratique réelle en laboratoire.

Les études de Conservation se déroulent en rapport constant avec les travaux de la Cinémathèque Basque, ce qui permet aux élèves de vivre concrètement dans le contexte d'archives homologués par la FIAF.

Clara Sánchez-Dehesa
Coordinateur du Département d'Études de Conservation

Clara Sánchez-Dehesa Galán est spécialisée dans la conservation et la restauration de matériel audiovisuel par la L. Jeffrey Selznick School of Film Preservation, New York, où elle a reçu la bourse Haghefilm 2011 et en patrimoine audiovisuel par le Master de l'Université Complutense de Madrid. Sa carrière de conservatrice s'est déroulée dans plusieurs projets au niveau national ainsi qu'en Bolivie, aux USA et au Mexique et elle a participé activement au développement du Red de Cine Doméstico (Réseau de cinéma domestique), association qu'elle président actuellement et où sont intégrés ses actuels projets de récupération et de diffusion du cinéma domestique et amateur.


“Le matériel du cinéma n'est pas qu'un simple support. Son rapport avec l'œuvre qu'il transporte est beaucoup plus intime que ce que montrent les politiques de numérisation actuelles. Comprendre cette relation, connaître les matériaux et leurs profondes détériorations est indispensable pour pouvoir prendre des décisions sur leur conservation. Les capacités techniques et la bonne utilisation des technologies qui sont liées à chaque type de support sont basiques pour travailler avec le patrimoine audiovisuel.

Dans le domaine de Conservation nous allons développer toutes ces qualités par la théorie, la pratique et l'expérience des professionnels. L'objectif ultime est que les élèves soient capables de faire face aux dilemmes que pose la conservation audiovisuelle avec un critère bien fondé”.

 

Clara Sánchez-Dehesa

Restauration et préservation du patrimoine cinématographique et audiovisuel

 

  Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4 Module 5

Matières obligatoires

Le plan des (trois) archives Histoire de la matérialité du cinéma La pensée du cinéaste : pratiques et théories Le point de vue sonore Esthétiques de la réception

Sujet du module

Concepts de base pour l’étude de la conservation audiovisuelle Nous analyserons la manière dont le matériel qui supporte le cinéma a une influence sur sa portée et son esthétique Ce à quoi les cinéastes ne pensent pas (ou ne doivent pas penser) : l’espérance de vie physique de leurs œuvres Processus de recherche et procédures de restauration Projection, reproduction et moyens d'accès d’archives respectueux de l’histoire de l’œuvre

Matières  principales

Introduction au patrimoine filmique : philosophie, concepts et dilemmes  Laboratoire photochimique   Détériorations et conservation des matériels photochimiques   Restauration du son   Conservation et stockage de collections audiovisuelles
  Identification et gestion des collections magnétiques  Identification, inspection et description du matériel photochimique  Détériorations et conservation des matériaux magnétiques   Gestion et traitement des collections de Complex Media  Restauration du film
      Documentation eta catalogage  Procédés de numérisation. Traitements numériques de l’image  Préservation numérique
Rencontres, matières optionales et autres events
         
Programme
Tabakalera
         

 

Matières communes

  • Film Hypothesis

    The theme of the first of the core subjects is the school itself, viewed as an aesthetic project rather than just an educational centre. The result is poetics, that is to say, an action plan, an ethic, a unitary vision of film, a shared life experience and a notion of collective co-responsibility that affects all members of the school. It is the EQZE as poetics, as Raúl Ruiz might say, or as ars poetica (the art of poetry), to borrow Horace’s term. A Single History/ Just a Story [Una sola historia/ Solo una historia] shows the EQZE’s place in the context of other legendary film education experiences, carrying out an iconological, flexible, cross-cutting and non-diachronic analysis of film in order to engender a reflection on the unity of film which lies at the heart of the EQZE teaching project.

  • Histoire de la matérialité du cinéma

    Il existe autant de cinémas que de matérialités (pas seulement optiques, haptiques également) du cinéma. Cette matière est conçue comme une approche du cinématographe en partant de sa matérialité, afin de démêler les progrès technologiques, évidemment, mais également les manières dont la matérialité de l’image a contribué à créer des discours artistiques spécifiques. La matière sera au départ concentrée sur la matérialité (résolution, texture, couleur) du matériau photochimique sensible pour ensuite examiner progressivement d’autres types de supports audiovisuels, magnétiques et numériques.

  • La pensée du cinéaste

    Une approche de la théorie de la création élaborée par les cinéastes même avant ou après avoir réalisé leurs films : en tant que projet filmique ou réflexion sur l'œuvre même. Dans tous les cas, la théorie des cinéastes fournit une approche des dilemmes esthétiques fondamentales du media accompagnés d’une lecture de la pensée cinématographique éloignée des méthodologies classiques. La matière envisage dans ce sens également les approches purement intuitives et non réflexives, contraires à la rationalisation de la création.

  • Le point de vue sonore

    Analyse du son dans le cinéma, recherche des connexions avec d’autres manifestations sonores contemporaines comme la musique et l'art, mais également avec la dimension sonore de la vie quotidienne.

  • Esthétiques de la réception

    Penser le cinéma depuis la réception ne signifie pas le voir à partir des résultats d’un film en fonction du nombre d’entrées ou du public ; c'est l’envisager à partir du rôle que la spectatrice ou le spectateur joue dansº l'aboutissement du sens inhérent à tout film. Son rôle actif ou passif, le lieu réservé pour elle ou lui dans le film, les processus d’identification et de distance, la création de surprise et les mécanismes d’émotion et d’empathie sont, tous ensemble, des composants essentiels de la création cinématographique abordés dans cette matière. La matière pose des interrogations sur tous ces domaines puisque, en définitive, penser le cinéma depuis sa réception signifie assumer que tout cinéaste est, avant tout, une spectatrice ou un spectateur actif.

  • Le plan des (trois) archives

    This subject offers EQZE students the opportunity of taking on an exploratory role (creative, researcher, curator) within archive-related film and audio-visual practice, bearing the three tenses of cinema in mind: the past, linked to memory; the present, linked to action; and the future, linked to planning and foresight. This philosophical proposal aims to prompt students to think about historical and contemporary cultural and political problems from the perspective of the conceptual framework offered by the concepts of profanation (Giorgio Agamben) and the creative act (Gilles Deleuze). 

  • Basque film: a cinematography with tradition, an emerging cinematography

    This course suggests an approach to Basque film. Beginning with an historical contextualization in order to provide the background of the birth and development of Basque film up to the present time, it will carry out a chronological and thematic review of the history of Basque film and will present the most notable Basque filmmakers from its origins to the present day, with particularly close attention to the three (or more) generations of Basque filmmakers who are currently active.

  • Inside filmmaker’s studio

    The sixth module begins in mid-August and is only partly classroom-based. This is a time for students to apply the knowledge they have gained, both through their work experience and in their individual or group end-of-course assignments.

Matières d'itinéraire

  • Introduction to audio-visual heritage and its history

    Due to the industrial nature of the audiovisual world, technological breakthroughs in this field have caused major disruptions throughout its history. The move from the 'cinema of attractions' to narrative, the standardisation of feature films as the cornerstone of all programmes, the sudden, large-scale spread of sound, colour and the wide screen format, the moving away from cellulose nitrate as a photochemical medium, and the use of electronic mediums and digital technology in the creation, dissemination and commercialisation of images, have all triggered their corresponding linguistic revolutions over the past 120 years, along with successive bouts of widespread distribution of materials, prompting some private individuals and administrations to create film archives. These five classes aim to present a theoretical basis regarding the reproducibility of audiovisual works and their different manifestations, as well as the various processes used by the industry (and therefore present in film archives) during three main periods: 1896-1930, 1930-1980 and 1980-2010. With the participation of Santiago Aguilar, Luciano Berriatua, Alfonso del Amo and Nere Pagola.

  • Identification and management of video materials

    Investigation into the history of video formats, their technical characteristics and use, risk factors, and principles and tasks for collection management. The course will cover both analog and digital materials stored on magnetic tape, ranging from professional and broadcast formats to those used for independent production and home videos. Collection management topics include identification and inspection, the creation of inventories, standards for collection care and handling, and conservation/preservation planning.

  • The photochemical image. 16 mm Laboratory (I)

    The subject offers a basic introduction to the procedures involved in developing black-and-white film by hand. Through theory and practice in developing different types of film and processes, the subject looks at the photochemical material during processing in the dark room. Students will learn about the chemical treatments and the alterations suffered by this type of material, in order to understand its qualities, its physical and aesthetic performance and its deterioration, as well as its creative possibilities. We will process material shot in the school.

  • Identification of film material

    Researching the history of audio-visual technologies in order to identify film heritage. Technical characteristics and use of materials. Design of tools and methodologies for identification, inspection, inventory and assessment of film collections.

  • Digital observatory

    A space for examining the tools of the digital image and data management from a technical perspective, from filming all the way through to postproduction.

  • Identification and inspection of digital files

    General understanding of digital documents: from outside (file system level) to inside (formats, codecs, encoding, etc). Focus is on audio-visual use cases. Students will learn how to find, understand and even manipulate technical properties of media files and how to apply this for quality tuning and long-term preservation. It also includes an introduction to quality-control of media files and should enable them to comprehend and handle capture- and export-options of any digital media application.

  • The photochemical image. 16 mm Laboratory (II)

    Second part of the subject, centring on the developing of colour film.

  • On the Materiality of Audio-Visual Heritage

    How has sound and image been recorded and reproduced? We will explore the various approaches that have been undertaken during the one a half past centuries and discuss why some succeeded and others did not. Understanding the original processes is the foundation for successful modern restorations. This class is a technical history of both the sound and the moving image record and their reproduction. The acoustic, electrical, magnetic and digital era are considered for sound; the photographic, magnetic and digital era for moving images. Not only the current archival media (radio, film, television and video) are explored, but also computers, video games and even… space exploration.

  • Documentation and cataloging

    Since film was first invented at the close of the 19th century, right up until the emergence of video at the beginning of the nineteen-seventies, all audio-visual works were shot on photochemical format and it was on the basis of this same format that audio-visual production, distribution and conservation developed and evolved. Digital technologies offer new ways of creating, storing and accessing works, but technological changes have destroyed some materials and rendered others inaccessible due to the obsolete nature of the devices required to reproduce and conserve them. From this perspective, the definition of new standards poses unprecedented challenges for conservation, while at the same time facilitating documentation and cataloguing processes, which are an indispensable requirement for guaranteeing access to audio-visual works.

  • The other film camera

    A theoretical reflection and practical exercise in forms of projection. Learning to project, exploring the vision and experience of projectors, from the magic lantern to the DCP.

  • Permanent film sound observatory

    The Observatory is involved throughout the academic year, providing a space for training, practice and research in sound. In addition to pre-established themes, it can also adapt to the specific needs of group members at any time, linking into practical work and projects under development, in the areas of sound recording and postproduction. Throughout the year, the observatory also builds links between the area of sound and other subjects, to form an ongoing echo chamber.

  • Digitisation processes. Digital treatment of images

    Study of the digitisation of material on photochemical supports. This is a well-established process nowadays, although workflows vary considerably from one institution to another. Students will learn the basics of digitisation and the objectives sought in the case of archives. When the image has been digitised, they will have treatment practicals to adjust optical qualities to the requirements of each project.

  • Video digitisation

    Material stored on magnetic media is at imminent risk of destruction. By the end of the next decade, we will have lost much of the content stored in this format. The only means of ensuring that valuable contents survive is to transfer them to digital media. This course centres on the assessment and digitisation of magnetically stored video material. We will examine the physical and chemical description of the material in order to understand and mitigate the effects of deterioration and the best way of treating it, with particular stress on digitisation processes. Students will learn how to assess deterioration in magnetic media, plan for digitisation and to understand the conservation requirements. By the end of the course, they will know how to digitise magnetically stored video material using the rack in the laboratory.

  • Digital processing of images

    The aim of this course is to help students understand and become familiar with film restoration tools using the DaVinci Resolve 15 software package. It also aims to teach them, using real examples, how to apply techniques for facilitating the restoration of cinematographic materials, as well as how to resolve any technical doubts that may arise.

  • Deterioration and preservation of film material

    Research on specificity of photochemical material and its relation to the work. Basic physical properties, colour systems, material deterioration and common types of damage. Planning for preservation and restoration.

  • Sound restoration

    This course deals with the dilemmas and solutions which crop up when working with soundtracks for audio-visual projects, and focuses on the procedures required for identification, restoration and long-term conservation.   

  • Film restoration

    This will address the complex world of film restoration, entailing a combination of knowledge and work over a wide range of disciplines in connection with audiovisual conservation. Students will learn how items to be restored are chosen, and the long process of a restoration project from the point of view of investigation. They will also study the range of market options nowadays to create the components of access and conservation.

  • Digital preservation

    Analysis of digital documents and the infrastructure needed to lay down a digital preservation strategy. Students will learn the theories and modern practices, and the access and conservation policies operated by various institutions.

  • The photochemical image. 16 mm Laboratory (III)

    Delving deeper into laboratory processes, this subject offers practical experience with professional equipment. Students will develop, copy and print film in a continuous processor and contact printer, with an analogue colour correction system. Following an introduction to the theory, we will carry out a number of different tests and trials of copying and final development on films created by the students. Development and copying are a technical part of the picture-building process. We will establish a creative line to show the extended possibilities available when these processes are carried out directly by the filmmakers themselves.

  • Management of audio-visual collections

    The environmental conditions that surround any type of material are crucial for their long-term preservation. Audio-visual documents use a wide variety of materials as formats. Knowledge of the needs of each material and the management of storage conditions are essential for extending the life of collections. This course discusses standards and debates on the handling of audio-visual material in all its complexity, and analyses various case studies that consider the heterogeneity of such material in terms of context and budget, comparing work with collections held privately, domestically and at historical associations. It seeks to provide key points to help students adapt to different circumstances in the work of archiving and learn how to set up and use a strategic plan for the conservation of audio-visual collections.

  • Management of Complex Media

    Audio-visual documents are not exclusive to film libraries or film archives. Audio-visual work is a format or medium of expression that is extensively used in other fields such as art. Contemporary art museums contain audio-visual collections that combine a wide variety of formats and technologies, which require specific handling and management.

  • Open source digital tools for Audio-visual archives

    The class begins with an introduction on file formats. Building on this the students will practically explore free and open-source software, such as FFmpeg (for in-depth file transformation), QCTools (for quality control), AEO-Light (sound extraction from optical tracks) and DCP-o-matic (DCP encoding), as well as various media players. Resources on infrastructure and workflows for film and video digitisation will be presented and discussed, taking account especially of solutions which can be implemented in difficult environments at little expense. An overview on data preservation and migration, as well as disaster planning and recovery, will round off this class.